/*
* Copyright (c) 1983, 1993
* The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
* are met:
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
* may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
* without specific prior written permission.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
* ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
* FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
* DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
* OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
* HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
* LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
* OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
* SUCH DAMAGE.
*
* @(#)random.c 8.2 (Berkeley) 5/19/95
* $FreeBSD: src/lib/libc/stdlib/random.c,v 1.25 2007/01/09 00:28:10 imp Exp $
*/
#include "namespace.h"
#include /* for srandomdev() */
#include
#include /* for srandomdev() */
#include
#include
#include
#include /* for srandomdev() */
#include "un-namespace.h"
/*
* random.c:
*
* An improved random number generation package. In addition to the standard
* rand()/srand() like interface, this package also has a special state info
* interface. The initstate() routine is called with a seed, an array of
* bytes, and a count of how many bytes are being passed in; this array is
* then initialized to contain information for random number generation with
* that much state information. Good sizes for the amount of state
* information are 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes. The state can be switched by
* calling the setstate() routine with the same array as was initiallized
* with initstate(). By default, the package runs with 128 bytes of state
* information and generates far better random numbers than a linear
* congruential generator. If the amount of state information is less than
* 32 bytes, a simple linear congruential R.N.G. is used.
*
* Internally, the state information is treated as an array of uint32_t's; the
* zeroeth element of the array is the type of R.N.G. being used (small
* integer); the remainder of the array is the state information for the
* R.N.G. Thus, 32 bytes of state information will give 7 ints worth of
* state information, which will allow a degree seven polynomial. (Note:
* the zeroeth word of state information also has some other information
* stored in it -- see setstate() for details).
*
* The random number generation technique is a linear feedback shift register
* approach, employing trinomials (since there are fewer terms to sum up that
* way). In this approach, the least significant bit of all the numbers in
* the state table will act as a linear feedback shift register, and will
* have period 2^deg - 1 (where deg is the degree of the polynomial being
* used, assuming that the polynomial is irreducible and primitive). The
* higher order bits will have longer periods, since their values are also
* influenced by pseudo-random carries out of the lower bits. The total
* period of the generator is approximately deg*(2**deg - 1); thus doubling
* the amount of state information has a vast influence on the period of the
* generator. Note: the deg*(2**deg - 1) is an approximation only good for
* large deg, when the period of the shift is the dominant factor.
* With deg equal to seven, the period is actually much longer than the
* 7*(2**7 - 1) predicted by this formula.
*
* Modified 28 December 1994 by Jacob S. Rosenberg.
* The following changes have been made:
* All references to the type u_int have been changed to unsigned long.
* All references to type int have been changed to type long. Other
* cleanups have been made as well. A warning for both initstate and
* setstate has been inserted to the effect that on Sparc platforms
* the 'arg_state' variable must be forced to begin on word boundaries.
* This can be easily done by casting a long integer array to char *.
* The overall logic has been left STRICTLY alone. This software was
* tested on both a VAX and Sun SpacsStation with exactly the same
* results. The new version and the original give IDENTICAL results.
* The new version is somewhat faster than the original. As the
* documentation says: "By default, the package runs with 128 bytes of
* state information and generates far better random numbers than a linear
* congruential generator. If the amount of state information is less than
* 32 bytes, a simple linear congruential R.N.G. is used." For a buffer of
* 128 bytes, this new version runs about 19 percent faster and for a 16
* byte buffer it is about 5 percent faster.
*/
/*
* For each of the currently supported random number generators, we have a
* break value on the amount of state information (you need at least this
* many bytes of state info to support this random number generator), a degree
* for the polynomial (actually a trinomial) that the R.N.G. is based on, and
* the separation between the two lower order coefficients of the trinomial.
*/
#define TYPE_0 0 /* linear congruential */
#define BREAK_0 8
#define DEG_0 0
#define SEP_0 0
#define TYPE_1 1 /* x**7 + x**3 + 1 */
#define BREAK_1 32
#define DEG_1 7
#define SEP_1 3
#define TYPE_2 2 /* x**15 + x + 1 */
#define BREAK_2 64
#define DEG_2 15
#define SEP_2 1
#define TYPE_3 3 /* x**31 + x**3 + 1 */
#define BREAK_3 128
#define DEG_3 31
#define SEP_3 3
#define TYPE_4 4 /* x**63 + x + 1 */
#define BREAK_4 256
#define DEG_4 63
#define SEP_4 1
/*
* Array versions of the above information to make code run faster --
* relies on fact that TYPE_i == i.
*/
#define MAX_TYPES 5 /* max number of types above */
#define NSHUFF 50 /* to drop some "seed -> 1st value" linearity */
static const int degrees[MAX_TYPES] = { DEG_0, DEG_1, DEG_2, DEG_3, DEG_4 };
static const int seps [MAX_TYPES] = { SEP_0, SEP_1, SEP_2, SEP_3, SEP_4 };
/*
* Initially, everything is set up as if from:
*
* initstate(1, randtbl, 128);
*
* Note that this initialization takes advantage of the fact that srandom()
* advances the front and rear pointers 10*rand_deg times, and hence the
* rear pointer which starts at 0 will also end up at zero; thus the zeroeth
* element of the state information, which contains info about the current
* position of the rear pointer is just
*
* MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + TYPE_3 == TYPE_3.
*/
static uint32_t randtbl[DEG_3 + 1] = {
TYPE_3,
0x991539b1, 0x16a5bce3, 0x6774a4cd, 0x3e01511e, 0x4e508aaa, 0x61048c05,
0xf5500617, 0x846b7115, 0x6a19892c, 0x896a97af, 0xdb48f936, 0x14898454,
0x37ffd106, 0xb58bff9c, 0x59e17104, 0xcf918a49, 0x09378c83, 0x52c7a471,
0x8d293ea9, 0x1f4fc301, 0xc3db71be, 0x39b44e1c, 0xf8a44ef9, 0x4c8b80b1,
0x19edc328, 0x87bf4bdd, 0xc9b240e5, 0xe9ee4b1b, 0x4382aee7, 0x535b6b41,
0xf3bec5da
};
/*
* fptr and rptr are two pointers into the state info, a front and a rear
* pointer. These two pointers are always rand_sep places aparts, as they
* cycle cyclically through the state information. (Yes, this does mean we
* could get away with just one pointer, but the code for random() is more
* efficient this way). The pointers are left positioned as they would be
* from the call
*
* initstate(1, randtbl, 128);
*
* (The position of the rear pointer, rptr, is really 0 (as explained above
* in the initialization of randtbl) because the state table pointer is set
* to point to randtbl[1] (as explained below).
*/
static uint32_t *fptr = &randtbl[SEP_3 + 1];
static uint32_t *rptr = &randtbl[1];
/*
* The following things are the pointer to the state information table, the
* type of the current generator, the degree of the current polynomial being
* used, and the separation between the two pointers. Note that for efficiency
* of random(), we remember the first location of the state information, not
* the zeroeth. Hence it is valid to access state[-1], which is used to
* store the type of the R.N.G. Also, we remember the last location, since
* this is more efficient than indexing every time to find the address of
* the last element to see if the front and rear pointers have wrapped.
*/
static uint32_t *state = &randtbl[1];
static int rand_type = TYPE_3;
static int rand_deg = DEG_3;
static int rand_sep = SEP_3;
static uint32_t *end_ptr = &randtbl[DEG_3 + 1];
static inline uint32_t good_rand(int32_t);
/*
* Compute x = (7^5 * x) mod (2^31 - 1)
* wihout overflowing 31 bits:
* (2^31 - 1) = 127773 * (7^5) + 2836
* From "Random number generators: good ones are hard to find",
* Park and Miller, Communications of the ACM, vol. 31, no. 10,
* October 1988, p. 1195.
*/
static inline uint32_t
good_rand(int32_t x)
{
int32_t hi, lo;
/* Can't be initialized with 0, so use another value. */
if (x == 0)
x = 123459876;
hi = x / 127773;
lo = x % 127773;
x = 16807 * lo - 2836 * hi;
if (x < 0)
x += 0x7fffffff;
return (x);
}
/*
* srandom:
*
* Initialize the random number generator based on the given seed. If the
* type is the trivial no-state-information type, just remember the seed.
* Otherwise, initializes state[] based on the given "seed" via a linear
* congruential generator. Then, the pointers are set to known locations
* that are exactly rand_sep places apart. Lastly, it cycles the state
* information a given number of times to get rid of any initial dependencies
* introduced by the L.C.R.N.G. Note that the initialization of randtbl[]
* for default usage relies on values produced by this routine.
*/
void
srandom(unsigned long x)
{
int i, lim;
state[0] = (uint32_t)x;
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
lim = NSHUFF;
else {
for (i = 1; i < rand_deg; i++)
state[i] = good_rand(state[i - 1]);
fptr = &state[rand_sep];
rptr = &state[0];
lim = 10 * rand_deg;
}
for (i = 0; i < lim; i++)
random();
}
/*
* srandomdev:
*
* Many programs choose the seed value in a totally predictable manner.
* This often causes problems. We seed the generator using the much more
* secure random(4) interface. Note that this particular seeding
* procedure can generate states which are impossible to reproduce by
* calling srandom() with any value, since the succeeding terms in the
* state buffer are no longer derived from the LC algorithm applied to
* a fixed seed.
*/
void
srandomdev(void)
{
size_t len;
size_t n;
int fd;
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
len = sizeof state[0];
else
len = rand_deg * sizeof state[0];
/*
* Standard
*/
fd = _open("/dev/random", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC, 0);
if (fd >= 0) {
n = _read(fd, (void *)state, len);
_close(fd);
if ((ssize_t)n < 0)
n = 0;
}
/*
* Back-off incase chroot has no access to /dev/random
*/
n = n & ~15;
if (n < len) {
size_t r = len - n;
if (sysctlbyname("kern.random", (char *)state + n,
&r, NULL, 0) == 0) {
n += r;
}
}
/*
* Pray
*
* NOTE: 'random' data on the stack is not random, don't try to
* access it.
*/
n = n & ~15;
if (n < len) {
struct timeval tv;
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
srandom((getpid() << 16) ^ tv.tv_sec ^ tv.tv_usec);
return;
}
if (rand_type != TYPE_0) {
fptr = &state[rand_sep];
rptr = &state[0];
}
}
/*
* initstate:
*
* Initialize the state information in the given array of n bytes for future
* random number generation. Based on the number of bytes we are given, and
* the break values for the different R.N.G.'s, we choose the best (largest)
* one we can and set things up for it. srandom() is then called to
* initialize the state information.
*
* Note that on return from srandom(), we set state[-1] to be the type
* multiplexed with the current value of the rear pointer; this is so
* successive calls to initstate() won't lose this information and will be
* able to restart with setstate().
*
* Note: the first thing we do is save the current state, if any, just like
* setstate() so that it doesn't matter when initstate is called.
*
* Parameters:
* seed: seed for R.N.G.
* arg_state: pointer to state array
* n: # bytes of state info
*
* Returns a pointer to the old state.
*
* Note: The Sparc platform requires that arg_state begin on an int
* word boundary; otherwise a bus error will occur. Even so, lint will
* complain about mis-alignment, but you should disregard these messages.
*/
char *
initstate(unsigned long seed, char *arg_state, long n)
{
char *ostate = (char *)(&state[-1]);
uint32_t *int_arg_state = (uint32_t *)arg_state;
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
state[-1] = rand_type;
else
state[-1] = MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + rand_type;
if (n < BREAK_0) {
fprintf(stderr,
"random: not enough state (%ld bytes); ignored.\n", n);
return(0);
}
if (n < BREAK_1) {
rand_type = TYPE_0;
rand_deg = DEG_0;
rand_sep = SEP_0;
} else if (n < BREAK_2) {
rand_type = TYPE_1;
rand_deg = DEG_1;
rand_sep = SEP_1;
} else if (n < BREAK_3) {
rand_type = TYPE_2;
rand_deg = DEG_2;
rand_sep = SEP_2;
} else if (n < BREAK_4) {
rand_type = TYPE_3;
rand_deg = DEG_3;
rand_sep = SEP_3;
} else {
rand_type = TYPE_4;
rand_deg = DEG_4;
rand_sep = SEP_4;
}
state = int_arg_state + 1; /* first location */
end_ptr = &state[rand_deg]; /* must set end_ptr before srandom */
srandom(seed);
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
int_arg_state[0] = rand_type;
else
int_arg_state[0] = MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + rand_type;
return(ostate);
}
/*
* setstate:
*
* Restore the state from the given state array.
*
* Note: it is important that we also remember the locations of the pointers
* in the current state information, and restore the locations of the pointers
* from the old state information. This is done by multiplexing the pointer
* location into the zeroeth word of the state information.
*
* Note that due to the order in which things are done, it is OK to call
* setstate() with the same state as the current state.
*
* Parameters:
* arg_state: pointer to state array
*
* Returns a pointer to the old state information.
*
* Note: The Sparc platform requires that arg_state begin on an int
* word boundary; otherwise a bus error will occur. Even so, lint will
* complain about mis-alignment, but you should disregard these messages.
*/
char *
setstate(char *arg_state)
{
uint32_t *new_state = (uint32_t *)arg_state;
uint32_t type = new_state[0] % MAX_TYPES;
uint32_t rear = new_state[0] / MAX_TYPES;
char *ostate = (char *)(&state[-1]);
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
state[-1] = rand_type;
else
state[-1] = MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + rand_type;
switch(type) {
case TYPE_0:
case TYPE_1:
case TYPE_2:
case TYPE_3:
case TYPE_4:
rand_type = type;
rand_deg = degrees[type];
rand_sep = seps[type];
break;
default:
fprintf(stderr,
"random: state info corrupted; not changed.\n");
}
state = new_state + 1;
if (rand_type != TYPE_0) {
rptr = &state[rear];
fptr = &state[(rear + rand_sep) % rand_deg];
}
end_ptr = &state[rand_deg]; /* set end_ptr too */
return(ostate);
}
/*
* random:
*
* If we are using the trivial TYPE_0 R.N.G., just do the old linear
* congruential bit. Otherwise, we do our fancy trinomial stuff, which is
* the same in all the other cases due to all the global variables that have
* been set up. The basic operation is to add the number at the rear pointer
* into the one at the front pointer. Then both pointers are advanced to
* the next location cyclically in the table. The value returned is the sum
* generated, reduced to 31 bits by throwing away the "least random" low bit.
*
* Note: the code takes advantage of the fact that both the front and
* rear pointers can't wrap on the same call by not testing the rear
* pointer if the front one has wrapped.
*
* Returns a 31-bit random number.
*/
long
random(void)
{
uint32_t i;
uint32_t *f, *r;
if (rand_type == TYPE_0) {
i = state[0];
state[0] = i = (good_rand(i)) & 0x7fffffff;
} else {
/*
* Use local variables rather than static variables for speed.
*/
f = fptr; r = rptr;
*f += *r;
/* chucking least random bit */
i = (*f >> 1) & 0x7fffffff;
if (++f >= end_ptr) {
f = state;
++r;
}
else if (++r >= end_ptr) {
r = state;
}
fptr = f; rptr = r;
}
return((long)i);
}